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10 most active volcaneos



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Introduction


 






Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station, May 2006














Cross-section th a stratovolcano (vertical scale is exaggerated):
1. Large magma chamber

2. Bedrock

3. Conduit (pipe)

4. Base

5. Sill

6. Di
15. Ash cloud








Pinatubo ash plume reaching a height of 19 km, 3 days before the climactic eruption of 15 June 1991

References




  1. ^ a b Foulger, G.R. (2010). Plates vs. Plumes: A Geological Controversy. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-6148-0. http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1405161485.html. 

  2. ^ Douglas Harper (November 2001). "Volcano". Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=volcano. Retrieved 2009-06-11. 

  3. ^ Lockwood, John P.; Hazlett, Richard W. (2010). Volcanoes: Global Perspectives. p. 552. ISBN 978-1-4051-6250-0. http://books.google.com/?id=eJopFDVRgYMC&pg=PA115&dq. 

  4. ^ "Volcanoes". U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.



 

A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from below the surface.


 

Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates
coming together. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not created where
two tectonic plates slide past one another. Volcanoes can also form
where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust in the interiors of plates, e.g., in the East African Rift, the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and the Rio Grande Rift in North America. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of "Plate hypothesis" volcanism.[1]


 

Intraplate volcanism has also been postulated to be caused by mantle plumes. These so-called "hotspots", for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs from the core-mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth.

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